There are various technical routes for biomass energy. According to the actual situation in China, we believe that no matter electricity, heat, liquid fuels, gas fuels, or solid commercial fuels, they have the value of existence and development, each has its own development space, and should be appropriately encouraged according to its characteristics and development space . Because of this, the country has included bioenergy development plans in recent five-year plans, and in particular, it has planned its own development goals for different energy routes. We think this is very scientific and is also in line with the actual situation of industrial development. The following are the author's views on the development of the bioenergy industry for discussion.
How to locate biomass raw materials
The "resources" need to be paid for, and the "solid waste" is to be paid for disposal. Currently, I think most of the biomass residues are best positioned as solid waste residues, not as resources. When most solid waste can be commercialized and economically operated, especially when "solid waste" has realized marketization, commercialized production and supply, and even market-based competition, then it can be converted into "resources". For China's agricultural and forestry biomass power generation projects, national preferential electricity price support (approximately 0.33 yuan per kilowatt-hour for state supplementary support, and different provinces have different basic electricity prices, which are correspondingly different) is equivalent to supporting agricultural and forestry solid waste disposal costs. Taking an agricultural and forestry biomass power generation project in northern China as an example, the national renewable energy subsidy can cover about 66% of the cost of purchasing straw raw materials for biomass power plants. That is to say, if straw raw materials are supplied to the plant free of charge, in some areas with high coal-fired electricity prices, biomass power plants will be able to achieve parity on-grid connection, and if there is better heating income, there may be a slight surplus. For agricultural and forestry biomass power plants, the national supplementary electricity price support is equivalent to the solid waste disposal cost subsidy, which is efficient, reasonable and accurate. From this perspective, this subsidy is not “excessive”.
Why multi-technical lines work together
From the perspective of China's agricultural and forestry biomass raw materials, different technical routes and projects of different scales have their "good" and "advantage" aspects of disposing of different biological raw materials. Because there are many types of bioenergy raw materials, their variety, quality, and physical and chemical properties vary widely, and their original intentions are also different. Different technical routes correspond to different biomass raw materials and different "causes", which are transformed into different "fruits". This is also one of the important reasons for the co-existence of multiple technical routes. Therefore, China has always favored the coexistence of multiple technological lines of bioenergy, giving play to their respective advantages, and developing together.
Different environmental and energy benefits
At present, the environmental protection and agricultural benefits of bioenergy are even more important than energy efficiency in a certain sense. For example, the treatment of urban waste to produce bioenergy, whether it is biomass electricity, heat, biodiesel, or biogas, must first be based on the premise of environmentally-friendly disposal of urban solid waste; for example, biomass such as straw and forestry residues in rural areas first aid The environmental protection management of rural straw and forestry residues, distributed applications such as biomass electricity and heat are the main supports for the modern development of agricultural areas and forest areas; for example, the environmental protection treatment of poultry and animal waste in agricultural areas to produce biogas, its environmental protection tasks, Value is the first goal, and energy is the support for its sustainable development. Another example is the biodiesel or biochemical project of urban kitchen waste, which is a relatively mature project with certain commercial promotion value. It is indispensable in the construction of "waste-free cities", and also provides support for the development of clean fuel for urban transportation. In addition, ethanol for bio-vehicle fuels is currently being commercialized in the field of bio-energy. One of the development directions of scale. But at present, it is mainly based on aging grains for large-scale, environmentally safe disposal. According to the application scale of aging grains, non-grain technology advancement and industrial development direction, the next development direction of automotive fuel ethanol will be to select non-grain raw materials. Non-grain biomass vehicle fuel ethanol is inevitable for the development of fuel ethanol. select.
Scale and distribution can develop together
From the perspective of energy production, of course, bioenergy engineering can be divided into large-scale and small-scale, as well as high-efficiency.
If it is from the benefits of scale, especially from the perspective of power production efficiency and emission control, large-scale mixed combustion has undoubted advantages. This is also one of the important reasons why domestic and foreign technical circles have been very sure that coal-fired power plants are coupled with biomass power generation. Secondly, China ’s large coal power consumption, coal consumption reduction, and power generation carbon dioxide reduction, etc., coal-fired coupled biomass is a worthwhile and unavoidable route, which is also the coal industry ’s inherent demand for coupled biomass models and routes. At present, there are two earliest real biomass-coupled power generation projects in China, one is Huadian Shiliquan and the other is Guodian Jingmen, which respectively represent two technical routes of direct mixed combustion of biomass and indirect mixed combustion of biomass gasification. Both projects have received national or local support policies. The current development model of the projects and their technology, policies, operation, and development and promotion are worth further analysis and research.
If it is viewed from the perspective of the environmental protection utilization of straw in the agricultural area and the distributed electricity and heat supply, especially in combination with the construction of "integrated energy system services" in the future rural urbanization development, the distributed small and medium-sized biomass thermal power projects will undoubtedly also be Has huge room for growth. Biomass combined heat and power projects, as well as biomass heat and power projects that are reserved for heating and temporarily unheated, have a significant role in promoting the development of rural urbanization. Of course, pure biomass heating in some areas to replace loose coal and small and medium boilers also has great commercial development potential; there are also heat and power cogeneration, biomass gasification carbon, heat, electricity, gas, The Feiduo cogeneration project is a way worth encouraging development.
Room for development
China's market and raw materials are large enough and each has its own space for development, far from reaching saturation. As far as distributed biomass direct-fired thermal power projects in agricultural areas are concerned, China's installed capacity of 20 million is not high (and we are currently only about 8 million), and there is a lot of room for development of other heat, gas, liquid fuels, and materials. . The future of China's biomass energy will be a "biochemical age" that can start a bioenergy chemical industry.
In China, our vision and industrial scope are not only limited to 1.8 billion mu of farmland, not only limited to straw resources, we also have 6 billion mu of grasslands, 2 billion mu of forests, 1 billion mu of wetlands, 4.5 billion Acres of ocean. The development of artificial forestry in our country has provided us with good experience. Before the reform and opening up, when there were no cardboard boxes, plastic products, etc., all of our agricultural product storage and transportation, rural area housing construction, and even some agricultural production baskets and other tools were supported by resources such as planting perennial wicker in agricultural areas. The future of China's energy plants is promising! The plant energy and bio-based chemical industries have multiple benefits in terms of carbon sequestration, emission reduction, agricultural support, ecology, energy, and environmental protection.
Have the conditions for common development of multi-technology routes
There are three main encouragement documents for the development of different technological routes for bioenergy in the past two or three years. Documents issued by multiple departments, led by different units and implemented: 2017 "Fifteen Departments" issued documents to promote the promotion of national vehicle fuels, and plans to achieve full coverage of E10 gasoline in 2020; 2018 "two departments" coal-fired coupled bio-power technology reform Notice of pilot construction; 2019 "Ten Sectors" guidance on biogas development. The previous three documents respectively support three directions of fuel ethanol for vehicles, large-scale coal-electricity coupled biomass, biogas, and purification projects. In addition, we have already promoted agricultural and forestry biomass thermal power, waste power generation, large-scale biogas projects, and biotechnology. The joint development of diesel and our country's biomass energy multi-technology route has achieved very good results, and the basic conditions for the rapid development of the next step are already in place. For different biological raw materials, we must make persistent efforts and continue to encourage different models and different routes to produce different products and benefits. We should try our best to avoid the "other or the other" development idea, let the technology and industry continue on the correct path of multi-line development for a while, let the market and capital make choices, and put renewable energy, environmental protection, Supporting agriculture and reducing emissions have done even better.