I. Status of International Heating
In 2017, global heating consumption was about 5 billion tons of standard coal, of which traditional biomass fuel was about 660 million tons of standard coal, accounting for more than 13%. From 2012 to 2017, the growth of renewable heat was about 18%. Renewable energy heating occupies a very important proportion in global heating consumption. Among them, biomass energy occupies a very important position in renewable energy.
From the perspective of global renewable energy production, by 2016, red municipal solid waste accounted for more than 50%, the green part was industrial waste, and the purple part was biogas. These three categories accounted for almost global renewables. The vast majority of thermal energy consumption, the vast majority of biomass energy accounted for a large portion.
In 2017, the use of modern commercial biomass energy accounted for 68% of renewable energy heating. Renewable energy accounts for about 10% of the entire global heating sector, and biomass heating accounts for 70% of renewable energy heating.
According to recent data released by Iea, biomass energy is the key to integrating renewable energy with heating and transportation fields. These fields together account for 80% of final energy consumption, but lag behind the power sector in terms of renewable energy share.
2. Overview of China's biomass energy industry
In 2018, China's biomass energy utilization was about 52.1 million tons of standard coal, accounting for about 1% of total energy consumption. Biomass energy still accounts for a small proportion of China's total energy consumption. In the biomass energy industry, the highest proportion is mainly based on biomass power. At the end of 2018, the installed capacity of biomass power generation was 18GW. The latest data is about 21.5 million kilowatts by the end of October 2019. Among them, direct-fired power generation is 9.35 million kilowatts, waste power generation is 11.19 million kilowatts, and biogas power generation is 780,000 kilowatts. The overall biomass power generation field is still in a growth process.
3. Biomass heating policy
It has been promoted for three years since the northern winter clean heating plan (2017-2021) released in 2017, and there has been a milestone in the development of clean biomass heating. Clean heating has learned some lessons in the promotion process, and is also in a new tackling stage. From coal to gas to electricity, a one-size-fits-all approach, it gradually shifted to a flexible and rational approach.
In terms of biomass policy, the “Notice on Promoting the Development of Biomass Heating Supply” and the “Notice on the Construction of“ Hundred Cities and Towns ”Biomass Cogeneration County Clean Heating Demonstration Project Construction” were issued. Judging from this, the industry development direction and trend are very clear. There is a strong guiding signal, but it lacks fiscal support policies. Judging from the five-year plan, there are corresponding subsidies from municipalities to first-, second- and third-tier cities, but there is still a certain gap between the strength of subsidies, the scale of development, and the development goals. There is an imbalance between central subsidies and local supporting facilities. It is a great difficulty for the future development of the industry.
On November 23, 2018, the National Energy Administration issued the "Notice on Doing Clean Heating in the 2018-2019 Heating Season", which particularly emphasized the need to actively expand the scale of renewable energy heating. Make a solid assessment and analysis of biomass resources, focus on the development of biomass cogeneration or biomass boiler heating, and decentralized biomass molding fuel heating. In urban and rural areas with resource conditions, encourage "farmers to collect, process nearby, The “local use” model vigorously promotes the replacement of scattered coal by biomass molding fuel, and actively promotes the heating of other biomass energy such as biogas.
In June 2019, the General Department of the National Energy Administration issued a letter asking for opinions on the “Notice on Resolving Relevant Issues in the Process of Clean Heating Advancement, such as“ Coal to Gas ”and“ Coal to Electricity ”. In rural areas, priority is given to the development of biomass energy heating, and at the same time to solve the environmental problems caused by the direct combustion of a large amount of agricultural and forestry waste.
In fact, the current problems facing clean heating are very clear. We should give priority to the development of clean biomass heating. The "Yangxin model" gives us the best inspiration, a greatest contribution, and a valuable experience. Yangxin County puts clean biomass heating in the first place. Really achieved priority development. The policy given by the state is the same, but Yangxin County is pushing for clean biomass heating in the county area from top to bottom. The core element is to give priority to clean biomass heating and give priority to development. position.
The problem now is that the amount of tasks in the pilot cities is quite different. Among the first 12 pilot cities, Baoding and Langfang are both prefecture-level cities and enjoy central financial subsidies of the same level. The three-year reconstruction tasks are 2.466 million households and 849,500 households, the former being 2.9 times the latter. The difference in the amount of tasks leads to differences in the intensity of obtaining subsidies. In the second batch of pilot cities, the average central subsidy for each household in Yangquan Clean Heating Renovation was 9282 yuan, while that in Xi'an was only 425 yuan.
Industry Development Trend
Biomass heating can hardly enjoy the same subsidy policy as coal-to-gas, coal-to-electricity, which makes it more difficult for the development of the entire biomass energy industry. How does the “Fourteenth Five-Year Plan” develop biomass industry? We have summarized four directions.
The first is to comprehensively promote biomass cogeneration. From the perspective of the National Development Strategy, the comprehensive advancement of biomass cogeneration is undoubtedly more focused on the direction of future subsidies.
The second is to rationally expand the biomass coal-fired coupling transformation. In fact, a lot of attempts have been made during the 13th Five-Year Plan. With the current loosening and changes in subsidy policies, some places have now made some corresponding policy adjustments for coupled power generation, and a good one has appeared. Signs. During the 14th Five-Year Plan, this method is a good direction to promote the vigorous development of biomass in combination with traditional thermal power and coal power clean-up.
The third is to give full play to clean energy alternatives in the non-electrical sector. The non-electricity field is closely related to clean biomass stoves, boiler heating, and district heating, of course, including biogas, which has just been introduced.
The fourth is to deepen the high added value of cogeneration of carbon, gas, oil and fertilizer. From the perspective of technical economy, it is currently the only type of technology that can be developed without subsidies in the entire biomass field. In the future, to do distributed biomass clean heating in the county area, multiple combined forms of biomass gasification are a good direction.
One necessity of the stove industry is to consider the energy-using habits of residents in rural areas more practically. On the basis of energy usage habits, it is essential to reform and promote clean stoves. Rural residents have problems of hollowing and aging, and their operating ability is low. In the future, small household stoves should be simplified and intelligent.
V. Problems and challenges
First, the application of biomass heating applications has insufficient access guarantee. From the perspective of the entire industry, the concept and consciousness of the priority development of biomass energy is still far from national. In the implementation of biomass heating in some areas, some energy authorities will ask a question, is biomass heating a clean fuel? Understanding of biomass energy cleanliness and how to promote the priority use of biomass energy are current A work that requires continued efforts in the future.
Second, the application of economic incentives in the field of biomass heating is insufficient. With the gradual decline of fiscal subsidy policy, we will not say no in the future, but the intensity of support will gradually decrease. This requires the pursuit of a more economically sustainable sustainable development model.
Third, poor energy-saving and thermal insulation of rural buildings. The biggest problem in rural areas is the energy saving of houses, which indirectly leads to the problem of high heating costs. In the future, we should focus on investment in energy efficiency in rural buildings.
Fourth, the biomass energy industry standard and regulatory system need to be strengthened. Now that everyone is aware of the issue of standards, I think there is another issue about the certification of the industry standard system. An authoritative certification body is required to have a third-party public certification of engineering, standards, equipment, etc. In the future, it will be a strong support for the market, the environment, and the relevant authorities.
Fifth, the biomass energy resource guarantee system needs to be improved. Where policies are in place, markets are in place, equipment is in place, and where we need to make our own efforts, we must have a sufficient, available, and sustainable economic resource security system. The assessment of resource availability is not enough. From a strategic planning perspective, a systematic scientific statistics, calculation and evaluation is needed.
The first is to strengthen the priority guarantee and fair access of biomass clean heating applications.
The second is to do a good job in regional clean heating planning to ensure sustainable development. Attention must be paid to planning, not only special clean heating planning, but also comprehensive urban development planning, so that biomass heating can be more effectively integrated into regional industrial development.
The third is to strengthen the construction of biomass resource investigation and evaluation system and establish a resource guarantee system. This is related to the "14th Five-Year Plan". How much role can biomass play in a clean heating system? A clear understanding of resource protection and resource supply is needed to stand upright and say our contribution. This is An important support.
The fourth is to improve the pricing mechanism and subsidy mechanism for biomass heat and biomass gas. In the evaluation of the Renewable Energy Law, it was proposed that attention should be paid to the development, application and development of non-electricity fields. For a long time, heat prices and heat markets are actually missing, which is also an important reason for limiting the development of the industry. In the early days of the "14th Five-Year Plan", can we combine the heating price mechanism with the traditional heating mechanism, and make some of the traditional heating mechanisms profitable and economical, and share it with renewable energy and Biomass clean heating is an important research topic.
Fifth, consider the coordinated development of energy-saving upgrades and clean heating. According to the different levels of economic development in rural areas, the energy conservation and clean energy transformation must be considered in combination.
Sixth, strengthen the formulation and supervision of standards in various fields of biomass energy.
Seventh, explore a sustainable market-oriented development model. How does biomass clean heating integrate with the carbon market? There is a big gap between the level of economic development in rural areas and cities. At present, clean heating of biomass energy still has to return to the mode of urban-driven rural areas. For example, in rural areas or township areas, land transfer and regional planning are now being carried out. Doing some industrialized biomass heating projects in industrial areas will have better economic benefits. Taking industrial development zones as better economic heating projects to drive individual household heating in rural areas, this is also an indirect type. Way of cooperation.